Quantum Computing, so called because the approach is based on quantum mechanics—has been the subject of investment and speculation for years. Recent projects, however, are demonstrating some promising results that may impact AI applications in the next decade. Unlike conventional von Neumann architecture computers, which store both instructions and data as bits (binary digits), Quantum Computing algorithms and architectures are based on the qubit, or quantum bit, as the basic unit of information.
Quantum Computing requires different programming models, skills, and tools. A bigger barrier to Quantum Computing is that the hardware must operate at a temperature near absolute zero to actually be in these superposition states, and there are substantial issues around stability.
Representative Vendors: IBM, D-Wave Systems, Google, and Microsoft.