Natural language processing (NLP) is the capacity for a machine to take spoken or written natural language as input instructions or data, and produce responses or reports in natural language as output. NLP has been one of the defining goals of artificial intelligence (AI) since the inception of the discipline over 60 years ago. Conversational AI uses Natural Language Processing technologies and Machine Learning to provide an engaging interface for applications.
The two components of natural language processing are natural language understanding (NLU) and natural language generation (NLG). NLU and NLG are two distinct processes that can work together or work individually.